abrade


abrade
abrade, excoriate, chafe, fret, gall mean to affect a surface by rubbing, scraping, or wearing away.
Abrade usually implies rubbing or scraping by something hard or harsh: when the surface rubbed or scraped is soft, injury results, but when it approaches the other in hardness, a smoothing or polishing (as by grinding) may be achieved
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the palms of his hands abraded by gravel

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the ship’s side was abraded in the collision

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loose sand grains . . . may be hurled against projecting masses of rock with such force as to abrade . . . their surfaces by a natural sandblast— Scientific Monthly

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an abrasive is a substance used in abrading steel

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Excoriate which literally implies a stripping or wearing away of the skin or hide usually suggests a peculiarly painful effect on something soft or tender made by something (as an abrasive or abrasion or a corrosive substance) that removes or destroys a protective layer such as the skin or mucous membrane
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the ends of his fingers were excoriated by acid

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my lips . . . were excoriated as with vinegar and gall— Brontë

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Chafe suggests a slight but persistent and painful or injurious rubbing of one thing upon another
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objected to wearing wool which she said chafed her skin

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the hawsers were so chafed by rubbing against the wharf that they required replacement Fret suggests an eating into or wearing away

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the river frets away the rocks along its banks— T. H. Huxley

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dripping water fretted a channel through the stone

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Gall is used especially with reference to animals and, less often, to persons: it implies a superficial injury such as an abrasion or blister made by friction
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an ill-fitting saddle galled the horse’s back

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All have extended usage with an implication of irritating or wearing.
Abrade and chafe usually suggest a persistent cause
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took refuge in a subdued blubbering, which soon abraded the teacher’s nerves— Perelmari

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a theater that is so physically uncomfortable as to chafe the playgoer’s disposition even before the curtain rises—A. Y. Times

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Excoriate is used rather specifically of a censuring so severe as to cause real distress or mental anguish
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when his programs fail, the implementation, not the directive will be excoriated; the subordinates and volunteers, not the dictator will suffer— Straight

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excoriated the morality of the Gilded Age and yet was fascinated by some of its surface trappings— J. D. Hart

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Fret and gall typically imply a causing of emotional wear and tear
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the galling frictions are in the world todayBenedict

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that hidden bond which at other moments galled and fretted him so as to mingle irritation with the very sunshine— George Eliot

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Analogous words: *scrape, scratch, grate, grind, rasp: *injure, damage, impair, mar: *irritate, exasperate

New Dictionary of Synonyms. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Abrade — Ab*rade , v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Abraded}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Abrading}.] [L. abradere, abrasum, to scrape off; ab + radere to scrape. See {Rase}, {Raze}.] To rub or wear off; to waste or wear away by friction; as, to abrade rocks. Lyell. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Abrade — A*brade , v. t. Same as {Abraid}. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • abrade — index diminish, erode, expunge Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • abrade — (v.) 1670s, from L. abradere to scrape off (see ABRASION (Cf. abrasion)). Related: Abraded; abrading …   Etymology dictionary

  • abrade — [v] scrape chafe, erode, grate, rub, rub off, scuff, triturate, wear, wear down; concepts 165,186,215 …   New thesaurus

  • abrade — ► VERB ▪ scrape or wear away. ORIGIN Latin abradere, from radere to scrape …   English terms dictionary

  • abrade — [ə brād′] vt., vi. abraded, abrading [L abradere < ab , away + radere, to scrape: see RAT] to scrape or rub off; wear away by scraping or rubbing abrader n …   English World dictionary

  • abrade — UK [əˈbreɪd] / US verb [transitive] Word forms abrade : present tense I/you/we/they abrade he/she/it abrades present participle abrading past tense abraded past participle abraded formal to damage something by rubbing its surface too hard …   English dictionary

  • abrade — verb /əˈbreɪd,əˈbreɪd/ To rub or wear off; to waste or wear away by friction; to damage or make rough; as, to abrade rocks …   Wiktionary

  • abrade — 1. To wear away by mechanical action. 2. To scrape away part or all of the surface layer from a part. [L. ab rado, pp. rasus, to scrape off] * * * abrade ə brād vt, abrad·ed; …   Medical dictionary


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